We have already begun setting the table for the 2021 season. We jumped in early with seasonal rankings and player write-ups that will be updated throughout free agency and NFL Draft. Building off those initial seasonal rankings, we are now laying the groundwork for dynasty formats.
I have already laid out initial thoughts and nuggets on the wide receivers regarding their 2021 outlook and will borrow a number of nuggets from there here. Here, we are going to lay out the positional tiers with a synopsis of those tiers and then at the end of the week provide linear top-200 lists for 1QB and SuperFlex formats. At the end of the week, top-200 and top-300 rankings will come out for all formats as a cross reference.
Some real quick methodology here. If you are new to how I do tiers, I make my dynasty tiers based on a blend of age, fantasy performance, career arc, team situation and fantasy archetype. There is some overlap to actual player rankings, but these tiers do not specifically follow the rankings, rather those archetypes. There should be tier movement for some players here based on how free agency and the draft plays out, so check back in as news develops this offseason.
The purpose of tiers not being a carbon copy of player rankings is to spot a potential arbitrage situation and shop in different buckets based on how you are constructing your team in startups and looking for trade opportunities. A veteran starter that can accrue points immediately based on where a current roster is and other times chasing more youth and upside for the future.
*Player Age = Age on 9/1/2021
A.J. Brown (Age 24.2)
D.K. Metcalf (23.7)
Justin Jefferson (22.2)
Calvin Ridley (26.7)
Since this is my post, I am taking some luxuries here and chopping the top tier of wideouts into two age brackets pending on how you want to approach your team build. If taking a more aggressive approach, you are going to take an established player below, but the 1A tier is a group of wideouts still on their rookie contracts that have already shown WR1 ability for fantasy. This tier does not have the immediate floor as the veterans below, but are well below the age apex at the position and will retain value longer.
A.J. Brown was the WR6 in points per game (17.7) despite ranking 23rd among wideouts in targets per game (7.6) and 27th in receptions per game (5.0). While Brown does not have the volume of other top-tier wideouts, all he has done is churn out relevant fantasy performances. Over his past 20 games played, Brown has 10 WR1 scoring weeks with 21 touchdown receptions. With Jonnu Smith and Corey Davis potentially on the move via free agency and Adam Humphries already released, me may even see Brown’s targets rise, though we know this offense will still immediately run through Derrick Henry.
D.K. Metcalf improved on his rookie season line (58-900-7) across the board in 2020 (83-1,303-10). He finished fifth in yards per team pass attempt (2.31 yards). Metcalf is a perfect match for Russell Wilson, so Seattle keeping and making Wilson stay in Seattle is paramount.
Justin Jefferson is coming off a historic rookie season. With 88-1,400-7, Jefferson had the most receiving yards for a player in his first season since 1960 and the fifth most PPR points for any rookie wide receiver. Jefferson caught 23-of-34 targets (67.6%) of throws over 15 yards downfield, the highest rate for any player with over 25 such targets (league average was 43.8%). While there should be expected regression in that department, we lived a similar efficiency breakout from A.J. Brown a year prior. With his historic rookie-season cohorts, all signs point to Jefferson having a productive career.
Calvin Ridley has gone from the WR28 to WR19 to WR4 in points per game over the start of his career as his targets (5.8-7.2-9.5), receptions (4.0-4.8-6.0), and yardage (51.3-66.6-91.6) have risen each year of his career. Ridley led the NFL in air yards per game (131.6) in 2020.
Tyreek Hill (27.5)
Davante Adams (28.7)
Stefon Diggs (27.8)
Michael Thomas (28.5)
DeAndre Hopkins (29.2)
Now if you are going all in for an immediate title run, these are the alpha wideouts that still have meat on the bone for their WR1 output. The typical breaking point for elite wideouts is around age-32. Everyone here is arguably a better bet to outscore the younger options in 2021.
Tyreek Hill is my top ranked wideout for dynasty regardless of approach, but since I split this opening tier solely by those on their rookie contracts and not, I have him here. Hill has been a WR1 on a per game basis in each of the past four seasons. Coming off his third season over that stretch as a top-5 scorer per game, Hill scored a career-high 17 touchdowns in 2020 while receiving a career-high 9.0 targets per game. Paired with Patrick Mahomes in the heart of his career, Hill consistently carries a massive ceiling.
Davante Adams turned in one of the best fantasy campaigns for a wideout on a per game basis. His 25.6 PPR points per game were the most for a wideout since Jerry Rice in 1995 (25.9) while Adams’s 17.4 standard points per game were the most for a wideout since Randy Moss in 2007 (17.9). Adams now has 27 touchdowns over his past 24 games played.
Stefon Diggs has shown to be a chameleon that has adapted to multiple NFL roles, quarterbacks, and schemes, Diggs’s first season in Buffalo could not have gone better as he led the league with 127 receptions and 1,535 receiving yards. Diggs was the only wide receiver to score double-digit PPR points in every game played this season while he caught at least six passes in every game but one.
Michael Thomas was hampered by an early-season ankle injury that was a problem all season long. Potentially due for a quarterback change, Thomas has actually thrived as a target hog in his sample without Drew Brees, including this past season with Taysom Hill under center. In 11 games the past two seasons with Brees out or forced from the game early, Thomas has secured 84-of-109 targets (32.2% of the team targets) for 1,010 yards, but just three touchdowns.
DeAndre Hopkins is the “oldest” of the wideouts here, but he reeled in 115 passes for 1,407 yards in his first season in Arizona. Hopkins has been a top-5 scoring wideout per game in each of the past four seasons and in five of the past six.
CeeDee Lamb (22.4)
Tee Higgins (22.6)
Ja’Marr Chase (21.5)
Chase Claypool (23.2)
Jerry Jeudy (22.4)
Brandon Aiyuk (23.5)
We are doubling down on the secondary level of wideouts by bracketing these wideouts into age differential for those attempting to “buy” more years on their roster versus wideouts in this tax bracket that come with a larger sample size of production.
This initial tier is largely made up of the best of the 2020 rookie class that did not quite perform at the levels of Justin Jefferson, but showed enough to raise their fantasy stock over their rookie season as a signal for potential upward trajectory.
CeeDee Lamb is coming off of the fifth-highest scoring season for a 21-year-old wideout in league history. After being the WR11 in scoring and the WR10 in targets (40) through five week with Dak Prescott playing, Lamb was the WR35 in scoring and the WR39 in targets after Prescott’s injury.
Tee Higgins was fourth among rookie wideouts in fantasy points last year while ranking third among first year wideouts in receptions (67) and yards (908) to go along with six touchdowns. Prior to Joe Burrow’s injury in Week 11, Higgins had 62 or more yards in six straight games while averaging 16.9 PPR points Weeks 3-10. Over that span, Higgins was the WR11 in overall fantasy scoring at the position.
Our one exception in not being a 2020 rookie is the top wideout in this class, Ja’Marr Chase. After turning in a massive 84-1,780-20 season in 2019 at age 19 that saw him outproduce Justin Jefferson, who just had a historic rookie season, Chase sat out the 2020 season due to COVID concerns.
Chase Claypool led all rookie wide receivers with 11 touchdowns in his first season, catching 62-of-109 targets for 873 yards and nine scores with an additional pair of touchdowns on the ground.
Jerry Jeudy received the second-most targets among all rookie wideouts last year (113) after Denver lost Courtland Sutton for the season immediately to start the season. Unfortunately, Jeudy ran cold in receiving many quality targets on that volume. His 58.2% catchable target rate was the second-lowest among all wideouts with 50-plus targets on the season behind A.J. Green. But his 16.5 yards per reception showcased his big play ability, which led all rookies that caught more than 35 passes.
Brandon Aiyuk caught 60-of-96 targets for 748 yards and five touchdowns while adding 77 yards and two scores rushing. The only question for Aiyuk heading into year two is how much did he benefit from all the time both Deebo Samuel and George Kittle missed. Aiyuk played six games with both Samuel and Kittle out (including Week 13 when Samuel played just one snap) and in those games, Aiyuk saw 10.5 targets per game (27.5%). In the four games both Samuel and Kittle played, Aiyuk saw 5.3 targets per game (15.2%).
D.J. Moore (24.4)
Chris Godwin (25.5)
Terry McLaurin (26.0)
JuJu Smith-Schuster (24.8)
Diontae Johnson (25.2)
Deebo Samuel (25.6)
Courtland Sutton (25.9)
D.J. Chark (24.9)
Our secondary tier of WR2 options that are a touch older than the previous split, but have shown off WR1 upside on a per week basis and larger sample of production than the younger group above.
Playing in the same number of games as 2019, D.J. Moore had exactly the same yardage (1,215 yards) and touchdowns (four) this past season as he did the year prior, but on 21 fewer receptions and 17 fewer targets. Moore had a role change that saw him dip from a reception and volume based option to a vertical target. His depth of target (13.7 yards) jumped from 11.7 yards the year prior as he averaged a career-high 18.1 yards per reception. His yards per team target have risen each season in the league where he ranked eighth this past season (2.17 yards).
In Chris Godwin’s first season with Tom Brady, the 24-year-old averaged 5.4 receptions (WR22) and 70.0 yards per game (WR17) while finishing as the WR15 in points per game (15.9) by turning in seven touchdowns. The potential free agent had had just three outside of the top-30 scorers.
After a 58-919-7 rookie campaign, Terry McLaurin turned in an 87-1,118-4 line in his second season. McLaurin was ninth among NFL wideouts in targets (8.9). We have yet to see his true ceiling playing through subpar offensive climates and quarterback play.
After a down 42-552-3 line in 12 games in 2019, JuJu Smith-Schuster bounced back with 97 receptions in 2020 and was the WR24 in points per game (14.6). Smith-Schuster may never channel the magic of his 2018 season again as he has shown to be a true slot wideout in the NFL, but he remains one of the most precocious wideouts who does not turn 25-years-old until November this season. After jumping to a career-high 85% of his routes from the slot in 2020, Smith-Schuster’s usage in 2021 needs to offer more versatility to his role.
While Diontae Johnson had a low yards per target (6.4) and a high number of drops (14), he still delivered on a weekly basis thanks to sheer volume. Johnson was fifth at the position in targets per game (9.6) and 11th in receptions per game (5.9) while being forced from two games early after just 19 and six snaps played.
Entering the season with a Jones Fracture that forced him to miss the first three weeks of the season, Deebo Samuel also suffered hamstring injuries at two different points of the season that limited him to just seven total games played and just five games on the field for 50% of the team snaps. However, in those five games, Samuel was first or second on the team in targets in four of them and saw 24.6% of the team’s targets while averaging 14.6 PPR points per game. With Brandon Aiyuk as the hot flavor in San Francisco, buy any dip on Samuel.
Courtland Sutton was lost for the season just one game into 2020. He enters the final season of his rookie contract with some question marks, but still a lot of upside. In 2019, Sutton was fourth among all wideouts in yards per team passing attempt (2.21) and fifth in weighted opportunity while playing with three quarterbacks.
Not much went right for D.J. Chark in 2020. He missed three games to injury while seeing his receptions per game (4.1), yardage per game (54.3), catch rate (57.0%), and touchdowns (five) all decline from his 2019 breakout. Dating back to midseason of 2019, Chark has now been a top-30 scorer in six of his past 23 games played with just seven games over that span reaching 60 yards. On the positive end, Chark was fourth in the NFL in air yards per game (100.2) while the three players above him were all top-10 scoring fantasy wideouts. A new system and quarterback can help Chark get back to that early 2019 form. Jacksonville has added Marvin Jones, who has a lot of overlap to Chark downfield.
Allen Robinson (28.4)
Amari Cooper (27.2)
Mike Evans (28.0)
Kenny Golladay (27.8)
Keenan Allen (29.3)
Will Fuller (27.4)
Odell Beckham (28.8)
Tyler Lockett (28.9)
I am done splitting up the tiers solely by career arc as we get into the heart of the position for fantasy. Our “third” tier of wideouts are those who are outside (or heading towards this offseason) of their rookie contracts. They are not as young as the wideouts in the previous tier, but also have not hit their 30s yet, either. While all of these wideouts can have a hard time actually building up more dynasty value year over year, they are still highly productive fantasy assets that are not at the point of no return for multiple seasons.
Allen Robinson has been the WR13 and WR11 in points per game the past two seasons. After catching 14 touchdowns in 16 games in 2015, Robinson has caught 23 touchdowns over his past 62 games, but has over 150 targets in each of his past four full seasons played. We would love to see him finally play with a tangible NFL quarterback.
Amari Cooper continued to be a steady producer in Dallas, catching 92 passes for 1,114 yards and five touchdowns. Cooper was the WR8 through five weeks with Dak Prescott, but still managed to be the WR22 overall Weeks 6-17 without Prescott.
Mike Evans turned in his seventh straight 1,000-yard season in 2020, catching 70 passes for 1,0006 yards. Evans had a career-high 13 touchdown receptions, but also set career-lows in targets (6.8), receptions (4.4) and yardage (62.9) per game.
Despite having over 5,000 fewer career receiving yards than Evans, Kenny Golladay is only a little over a month younger. Golladay appeared in just five games in 2020. He still managed to show his upside with 16.9 yards per reception and a career-high 10.6 yards per target, but with 4.0 receptions per game, Golladay has now averaged fewer than 5.0 receptions per game in each of his four seasons in the league.
With 100, 104, 97, and 102 receptions over his past four seasons, only Michael Thomas (418) and DeAndre Hopkins (430) have more catches than Keenan Allen over that span. Allen averaged 12.2 targets per game in his 11 full games played with Justin Herbert and just signed a contract extension last offseason.
Staying healthy and elevated to a lead-receiving role, we finally saw it all come together for Will Fuller. Joining the Dolphins on a 1-year contract, Fuller takes a step back in quarterback play, but still is likely undervalued for what he provides on a per game basis.
Turning 29 years old in 2021, Odell Beckham has not played a season since 2016 that has not been wrapped around some injury-narrative. On the field for the first six games, Beckham gave us a glimpse that he still has WR1 upside with a 38-point game versus the Cowboys, but his per game averages of 3.8 receptions for 53.2 yards would have been career-lows, had they held up for a full season.
Tyler Lockett was the WR8 in overall scoring and the WR12 in points per game (16.6) in 2020 as he set career-highs with 132 targets and 100 receptions while matching a career-best 10 touchdowns. While the overall totals were strong, Lockett came with a ton of volatility, having nine games outside of the top-40 at his position while scoring six of his 10 touchdowns in two games. Still attached to Russell Wilson that weekly upside is worth the squeeze.
Robert Woods (29.4)
Cooper Kupp (28.2)
Tyler Boyd (26.8)
Jarvis Landry (28.8)
Brandin Cooks (27.9)
Robby Anderson (28.3)
DeVante Parker (28.6)
Corey Davis (26.6)
Tier five is made up of NFL producers that have not given us much upside of the previous tier, but are well established starters for fantasy rosters. The crux of this tier are approaching their 30s, but as was the case with the prior tier, none are major worries of falling off the age cliff immediately.
All Robert Woods does is continue to beat his ADP, doing so in every year of his career. Woods has closed as a top-15 scorer overall in each of the past three seasons and a top-20 scorer per game in each of the past four.
As steady as Woods has been, in their 16 games played together this past season, Cooper Kupp actually out-targeted Robert Woods 134-to-131 with 96 catches for 1,052 yards on those targets compared to 90 receptions for 947 yards for Woods. The fantasy difference was that Kupp scored a career-low three touchdowns this season while Woods scored a career-high eight (six receiving). I would look for Kupp to be a value and bounce back option in 2021.
From Weeks 1-10, Tyler Boyd was the WR13 in overall scoring and was seventh among wideouts in receptions (60). From Week 11 on, Boyd averaged just 5.7 targets, 3.2 receptions, 36.0 yards and 7.9 PPR points per game.
In his first season with Carolina and reunited with Matt Rhule, Robby Anderson reshaped his career while setting career-highs with 136 targets, 95 receptions, and 1,096 yards. Anderson went from strictly a lid lifter for his offense to intermediate volume producer. He had just three touchdowns, but Anderson was 10th among all wideouts in targets per game (8.5) in 2020.
Rashod Bateman (21.8)
DeVonta Smith (22.8)
Rondale Moore (21.2)
Jaylen Waddle (22.8)
Terrace Marshall (21.2)
Elijah Moore (21.4)
Tylan Wallace (22.3)
Dyami Brown (21.8)
Kadarius Toney (22.6)
Amon-Ra St. Brown (21.9)
I do believe there is a gap from Ja’Marr Chase and the field of 2021 rookie wideouts, but this is the top group of incoming rookie wideouts behind Chase. We should see the majority of these wideouts have their names called early on in the draft with tangible capital. I broke down these players further in actual rookie rankings, but this group of players are the ones that I give the best inaugural season odds in making that jump that the Tier 2A group of wideouts made a year ago.
Julio Jones (32.6)
Adam Thielen (31.0)
A short tier here with our post-30 wideouts that have still shown WR1 ability, but can do nothing at this point to raise their dynasty value year over year. These are wideouts strictly for win-now rosters.
Julio Jones was limited just nine games in 2020. While Father Time is undefeated and Jones could be nearing his inevitable decline, he still averaged 15.1 yards per catch (his highest since 2017) and ranked as the WR6 in receiving yards per game (85.7).
Adam Thielen was last season’s WR10, catching 74 passes for 925 yards and a career-high 14 touchdowns. That touchdown production did some masking overall that his 4.9 receptions and 61.7 yards per game were far from the 2017-2018 pace he was at while touchdowns alone accounted for 33.1% of Thielen’s fantasy production, the highest rate among the top-90 scoring wideouts in the league while his receptions per game were 28th and 29th.
Laviska Shenault (22.9)
Michael Pittman (23.9)
Jalen Reagor (22.7)
Denzel Mims (23.9)
Darnell Mooney (23.8)
Henry Ruggs (22.6)
Gabriel Davis (22.4)
Van Jefferson (25.1)
K.J. Hamler (22.1)
Jalen Guyton (24.2)
Tyler Johnson (23.0)
Donovan Peoples-Jones (22.5)
The secondary tier of 2020 rookies that did not establish themselves right out of the box as fantasy starters, but either showed pockets of production or have draft investment to build on their rookie seasons.
Laviska Shenault caught 58-of-79 targets for 600 yards and five touchdowns while tacking on 91 yards on the ground. Shenault will get the Percy Harvin/Curtis Samuel parallels drawn to him with the Jaguars bringing in Urban Meyer as head coach.
Henry Ruggs was the first wideout taken in last year’s draft and will be given multiple opportunities to fail, but the Raiders did not have much of a plan for him a year ago as he secured just 26-of-43 targets for 452 yards and two touchdowns.
The same can be said for Jalen Reagor. The first-round wideout missed five games due to injury and when on the field, caught just 31-of-54 targets for 396 yards and one touchdown. Catching just one pass for 55 yards in his season debut Week 1, those 55 yards ended up as a season-high.
In 13 games as a rookie, Michael Pittman caught 40-of-61 targets for 503 yards and just one touchdown. When we last saw Pittman on the field, he led the team with 5-90-0 on 10 targets in the postseason.
Although he was the 24th wide receiver selected in the NFL Draft last season, Darnell Mooney ended the season fifth among all rookies in receptions (61) and seventh in yardage (631 yards) to go along with four touchdowns.
Denzel Mims missed seven games due to a hamstring injury, but when on the field led the Jets with a 14.6-yard depth of target and 71.4 air yards per game while catching 23-of-44 targets for 357 yards and zero scores. If somehow the Jets can land Deshaun Watson then Mims will be a hot target for 2021, but the Jets should upgrade on their 2020 quarterback play regardless.
Marquise Brown (24.2)
Michael Gallup (25.4)
Mike Williams (26.9)
Darius Slayton (24.6)
Marvin Jones (31.5)
John Brown (31.4)
Blending all ages here for an all-volatility tier. The wideouts in this group have shown the capability to have high ceilings due to the fact that they receive high-leverage targets (downfield and end zone targets) for fantasy scoring, but also have not received steady enough volume that has led to some in-season valleys.
After a 46-584-7 rookie season on 71 targets, Marquise Brown improved across the board with 58-769-8 on 100 targets in 2020. His target share (25.8%) was seventh in the league while his share of air yards (38.1%) was third, but Brown was neutered by the overall nature of the Baltimore passing game. Brown cleared 60 yards receiving in just five games while his 6.3 targets per game ranked 49th at the position.
After 66-1,107-6 in 2019, Michael Gallup took a step back in 2020, catching 59-of-105 targets for 843 yards and five touchdowns. Gallup did close the season on a positive note, with seven or more targets in six of his final nine games and a touchdown three of his final five games.
At age-30, Marvin Jones appeared in all 16 games for the first time since 2017, securing 76-of-115 targets for 978 yards and nine touchdowns. Jones showed there are still ceiling moments in his range of outcomes with four top-five scoring weeks, but also his volatility, having 11 other weeks as the WR35 or lower.
Curtis Samuel (25.1)
Mecole Hardman (23.5)
Lynn Bowden (23.9)
Another short tier of wideouts that do a bit of everything, but are masters of none. We also could see a rookie such as Kadarius Toney fall into this bucket.
After a disappointing 2019 season where he was typecast as a vertical threat, Curtis Samuel turned in a 77-851-3 on 97 targets while playing a role near the line of scrimmage and utilizing his dual-usage ability showcased as a prospect entering the league. Tacking on 41 rushing attempts for 200 yards and two scores, Samuel’s 118 touches were bested by only Stefon Diggs among wideouts. Reuniting with Ron Rivera and Scott Turner in Washington, hopefully we a marriage between the role Samuel had in 2019 and his 2020 usage.
Tamorrion Terry (23.4)
Josh Palmer (21.9)
D’Wayne Eskridge (24.4)
Amari Rodgers (21.9)
Seth Williams (22.4)
Tutu Atwell (21.9)
Nico Collins (22.5)
Isaiah McKoy (21.6)
Sage Surratt (23.4)
Jaelon Darden (22.6)
Warren Jackson (22.2)
Marlon Williams (22.1)
Shi Smith (22.8)
Dazz Newsome (22.3)
Anthony Schwartz (21.0)
Ihmir Smith-Marsette (22.0)
Tyler Vaughns (24.2)
Damonte Coxie (24.8)
Our non-elite tier of wideouts from this class. We covered much of this group here, but draft capital investment will be paramount for this group that has a large range of outcomes. If you are in startups that include rookies over draft picks, this tier is enticing to shoot for the unknown upside rather than the contributors that follow.
Christian Kirk (24.8)
Parris Campbell (24.1)
Jamison Crowder (28.2)
Sterling Shepard (28.6)
Hunter Renfrow (25.7)
Keke Coutee (24.6)
Anthony Miller (26.9)
Cole Beasley (32.3)
Greg Ward (26.1)
Similar to Tier Eight, we are largely throwing age out of the window here and grouping together our slot wide receivers that receive low-leverage fantasy targets, but have higher floors than that tier of wideouts.
Christian Kirk and Sterling Shepard did not primarily play in the slot a year ago, with veterans Larry Fitzgerald potentially retiring and Golden Tate already released from the Giants, those players can revert back to a position that is best suited for what they bring to the table as wideouts in 2021.
T.Y. Hilton (31.8)
Antonio Brown (33.1)
A.J. Green (33.1)
Julian Edelman (35.3)
Emmanuel Sanders (34.5)
Our no-man’s land tier of wideouts based on being at the tail end of their career arcs, but no doubt will see snaps and opportunities this upcoming season.
Antonio Brown was the WR21 from Weeks 9-17 after joining the Bucs while ranking 25th in targets (62), 18th in receptions (45) and 27th in yardage (483) to go along with four touchdowns, all but securing he is playing somewhere in 2021.
In his past three seasons without Andrew Luck, T.Y. Hilton has finished as the WR38, WR35, and WR50 in points per game. In 2020, the 31-year-old managed 3.7 receptions for 50.8 yards per game.
A.J. Green set career-lows with 2.9 receptions and 32.7 yards per game in 2020 despite receiving 104 targets. We can use targets loosely here as just 49.5% of his looks were deemed catchable, the lowest rate among all wideouts that received 30 or more targets a year ago.
Julian Edelman will turn 35 years old this May, but intends to return this season after appearing in just six games a year ago. After 13 catches for 236 yards the opening two games of 2020, Edelman then totaled eight catches for 79 yards over his final four games played.
Scotty Miller (24.1)
Marquez Valdes-Scantling (26.9)
Breshad Perriman (28.0)
Allen Lazard (25.7)
Tim Patrick (27.8)
Rashard Higgins (26.9)
Cam Sims (25.7)
John Ross (26.8)
N’Keal Harry (23.7)
Tre’Quan Smith (25.7)
Keelan Cole (28.4)
Zach Pascal (26.7)
Chris Conley (28.9)
Our final tier is filled with wideouts that are real-life and fantasy contributors, but are more ancillary options in both regards. They are roster depth needed to spot starts, bye weeks, and injury elevation more than having a large runway to be leaned on.